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An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus in the area of the anus and rectum.
- Alternative Names
Anal abscess; Rectal abscess; Abscess - anorectal
- Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Common causes include:
- Blocked gland in the area
- Infection of an anal fissure
- Sexually transmitted infection
The following factors increase your risk for an anorectal abscess:
- Anal sex
- Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)
- Weakened immune system
The condition may occur in infants and toddlers who are still in diapers and who have a history of anal fissures.
- Constipation (may occur)
- Discharge of pus from the rectum
- Lump or nodule, swollen, red, tender at edge of anus
- Pain associated with bowel movements
- Painful, hardened tissue
In infants, the abscess often appears as a swollen, red, tender lump at the edge of the anus. The infant may be fussy from discomfort, but there are generally no other symptoms.
- Signs and tests
Treatment involves surgery to drain the abscess.
Warm sitz baths (sitting in a tub of warm water) may help relieve pain and swelling, and may help make the abscess easier to drain.
Your doctor may prescribe pain medication and antibiotics.
- Expectations (prognosis)
With prompt treatment, a patient usually does well. Infants and toddlers usually recover very quickly.
- Anal fistula
- Body-wide infection
- Problem keeps coming back (recurrence)
- Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you notice a rectal discharge, or if symptoms of an anorectal abscess develop. You should also call if you have fever, chills, or other new symptoms after being treated for this condition.
Prevention or prompt treatment of sexually transmitted diseases may prevent this cause of anorectal abscesses. Use condoms during intercourse, including anal sex, to prevent such infections.
Frequent diaper changes and proper cleaning during diaper changes will help prevent both anal fissures and perianal abscesses in infants and toddlers.
Review Date: 7/22/2008
Reviewed By: Shimul A. Shah, MD, Assistant Professor of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.